Written by Miss Noor Hafizah
intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory that
deals with sensitivity to the spoken and written language, the ability to learn
language, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. People
with linguistic intelligence, such as William Shakespeare and Oprah Winfrey,
have an ability to analyse information and create products involving oral and
written language, such as speeches, books, and memos.
Next is logical-mathematical intelligence. It refers to the
capacity to analyse problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and
investigate issues scientifically. People with logical-mathematical
intelligence, such as Albert Einstein and Bill Gates, have an ability to
develop equations and proofs, make calculations, and solve abstract problems.
Spatial intelligence features the potential to recognise and
manipulate the patterns of wide space (those used, for instance, by navigators
and pilots) as well as the patterns of more confined areas, such as those of
importance to sculptors, surgeons, chess players, graphic artists, or
architects. People with spatial intelligence, such as Frank Llyod Wright and
Amelia Earhart, have an ability to recognise and manipulate large-scale and
fine-grained spatial images.
Bodily kinaesthetic intelligence is the potential of using
one’s whole body or parts of the body (like the hand or the mouth) to solve
problems or fashion products. People with bodily kinaesthetic intelligence,
such as Michael Jordan and Simone Biles, have an ability to use one’s own body
to create products, perform skills, or solve problems through mind-body union.
Musical intelligence is the ability to perform, compose, and appreciate
musical patterns. People with musical intelligence, such as Beethoven and Ed
Sheeran, have an ability to recognise and create musical pitch, rhythm, timbre,
Interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations, and desires of other people and consequently to work
effectively with them. People with interpersonal intelligence, such as Mahatma
Gandhi and Mother Teresa, have an ability to recognise and understand other
people’s moods, desires, motivations, and intentions.
Intrapersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand
oneself, to have an effective working model of oneself, including one’s own
desires, fears, and capacities, and to use such information effectively in
regulating one’s own life. People with intrapersonal intelligence, such as
Aristotle and Maya Angelou, have an ability to recognise and understand their
own moods, desires, motivations, and intentions. This type of intelligence can
help a person understand which life goals are important and how to achieve
Lastly, is naturalistic intelligence, which involves expertise
in the recognition and classification of the numerous species—the flora and
fauna—of his or her environment. People with naturalistic intelligence, such as
Charles Darwin and Jane Goddall, have an ability to identify and distinguish
among different types of plants, animals, and weather formations that are found
in the natural world.
The Multiple Intelligence Theory is a useful model for
developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching children and
honouring their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting.
The concept of multiple intelligence does not require
discarding previous ideas. Teachers can supplement current appropriate
activities with new ideas that will reach even more of their students. In fact,
Gardner contends that teachers need to guide students into using their
combination of intelligence to help them learn whatever they want to learn, as
well as what teachers and society believe they must learn.
The multiple intelligence approach provides a framework for us
to identify how children learn to build on their strongest assets, to help them
become more intelligent by exposing them to a variety of ways of learning, to
better individualise for their interests and needs, and to use teaching
strategies that make learning more appropriate, successful, and enjoyable for